Although the Kargil conflict focused on the Kashmir dispute at the international level, which was one of Pakistan`s objectives, it had done so under negative circumstances that would undermine its credibility, as the infiltration took place shortly after the conclusion of a peace process between the two countries. The sanctity of the LOC has also received international recognition. President Clinton`s move to ask Islamabad to withdraw hundreds of armed militants from Indian-administered Kashmir was seen by many in Pakistan as an indication of a clear shift in US policy against Pakistan.  The Lahore Declaration was signed on February 21 at the same time as a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) after three roundtables between the Indian and Pakistani leaders.   In substance, both governments reaffirmed their commitment to the vision of peace, stability and mutual progress, as well as their full commitment to the De Simla Agreement and the UN Charter. The two Governments, through the Lahore Declaration, recognized that the development of nuclear weapons has increased the responsibility of both nations in conflict prevention and encouraged the importance of confidence-building measures, including to prevent the accidental and unauthorized use of nuclear weapons.   India and Pakistan also decided to inform each other in advance of ballistic missile tests and the accidental or unexplained use of nuclear weapons in order to avoid the outbreak of nuclear conflict.  It is important, among other things, that in addition to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners from the 1971 war, the Simla Agreement was a plan for India and Pakistan to maintain friendly and neighbourly relations. As part of the agreement, the two belligerent countries promised to renounce conflicts and confrontations and make efforts to establish peace, friendship and cooperation. Given that Pakistan and India had weapons of mass destruction, many members of the international community feared that a worsening of the Kargil conflict would lead to nuclear war. Both countries had tested their nuclear capabilities in 1998 (India conducted its first test in 1974, when it was Pakistan`s first nuclear test).
Many experts felt that the tests were an indication of the escalation of operations in the South Asian scenario. When the Kargil conflict began just one year after the nuclear tests, many nations wanted to end it before it escalated. In 2001, at the invitation of Prime Minister Vajpayee, General Pervez Musharraf, then President of Pakistan, visited India on July 14-16 for a historic two-day summit in Agra. However, the talks failed and no text of agreement could be reached. While in Kashmir, only “maintaining the line of control” was the spokesman, a clause was added to India`s insistence that the two countries would only settle their differences by “peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or other mutually agreed peaceful means,” Guha writes. . . .