According to a study carried out by Business Europe in 2013, double taxation remains a problem for European SMEs and a barrier to cross-border trade and investment.   Problems include limiting the ability to deduct interest, foreign tax credits, stable settlement issues, and differences in qualifications or interpretations. Germany and Italy have been identified as the Member States where most cases of double taxation have been identified. Double taxation is common because companies are considered separate legal entities by their shareholders. As such, companies pay taxes on their annual income, as do individuals. When companies pay dividends to shareholders, these dividends are subject to income tax obligations for the shareholders who receive them, while the profits that provided the money to distribute the dividends have already been taxed at the corporate level. But what are they? How do they work? And why are they so controversial? It is not uncommon for a company or person established in one country to make a taxable profit (profits, profits) in another country. A person may have to pay taxes on that income on the spot and in the country where it was produced. The stated objectives for concluding a contract often include reducing double taxation, eliminating tax evasion and promoting the efficiency of cross-border trade.  It is generally accepted that tax treaties improve the security of taxpayers and tax authorities in their international transactions.  The agreement on the prevention of double taxation between India and Singapore currently provides for a capital gains tax based on the capital gains of a company`s shares. The third protocol amends the agreement effective April 1, 2017, which provides for a tax at the source of capital gains from the transfer of shares of a company.
This will reduce revenue losses, avoid double non-taxation and streamline investment flows. In order to ensure the safety of investors, equity investments made before April 1, 2017 were processed in accordance with the benefit limitation clause provided by the 2005 Protocol, in accordance with the terms of the benefit limitation clause. In addition, a two-year transitional period was provided between April 1, 2017 and March 31, 2019, during which capital gains on shares in the source country are taxed at half the normal rate, subject to compliance with the terms of the benefit limitation clause. Tax evasion, on the other hand, exploits the way the law is drafted. For example, a tax treaty can be used to obtain an advantage that was not the original intent of the treaty. The tax authority is not in a position to do anything about this in the immediate time frame, as the taxpayer is legally authorized. In the longer term, you need to change the law. You have to change the tax treaty, which is difficult to do because you need both parties to approve it. However, this initial reason for wanting to avoid double taxation has not completely disappeared, as there will always be some differences in the way countries manage profits.
The signing of the agreement on the prevention of double taxation has four main consequences. India has a comprehensive agreement with 88 countries to avoid double taxation, 85 of which have entered into force.  This means that there are agreed tax rates and skill rates for certain types of income generated in one country for a country of taxation established in another country.