International Agreements Geography

International agreements are formal agreements or commitments between two or more countries. An agreement between two countries is described as “bilateral,” while an agreement between several countries is “multilateral.” Countries bound by countries bound by an international convention are generally referred to as “Parties.” If a contract does not contain provisions for other agreements or measures, only the text of the treaty is legally binding. In general, an amendment to the Treaty only commits the States that have ratified it and the agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of the States Parties are not legally binding. The Charter of the United Nations is an example of a treaty that contains provisions for other binding agreements. By signing and ratifying the Charter, countries have agreed to be legally bound by resolutions adopted by UN bodies such as the General Assembly and the Security Council. Therefore, UN resolutions are legally binding on UN member states and no signature or ratification is required. There are also international agreements on the use of tropical hardwoods and logging. The International Tropical Woods Agreement was established in 2006 to “promote the expansion and diversification of international trade in tropical timber from sustainably managed and legally harvested forests and promote the sustainable management of tropical timber-producing forests.” 71 countries have signed the UN-sponsored agreement. The IHR (2005) is an international agreement between 194 States Parties and the World Health Organization on surveillance, sunshine and response to all events that could pose a threat to international public health. The objective of the IHR (2005) is to prevent, protect, control and respond to a public health response to the spread of diseases internationally, in a manner adapted to public health risks, limited to them, avoiding unnecessary intervention in international transport and trade. (International Health Regulations, Article 2).