carbon prices are due to restriction, while the cost of carbon is the real amount of money an industry, for example, would have to pay to meet a commitment; it only applies to people who are subject to CO2 restrictions. The current EU free trade agreements, as concluded with Mercosur countries, Vietnam and Canada, contain all the trade and sustainable development (SSD) chapters on environmental and social standards. However, not all related disputes resulting from the achievement of climate targets trigger the regular dispute resolution procedure in the agreement, but a separate procedure defined in Chapter TSD. This is more cooperation than sanctions, which weakens the application of TSD standards. However, in order to achieve the overall climate targets of the Paris Agreement, the EU is looking for ways to reduce the risk of carbon leakage. One possibility would be to set up a mechanism for adapting CO2 limits (1) in which a third country wishing to export its products to the EU would have to pay a tax at the EU`s external border, based on the carbon dioxide content of the imported product. This would require third-country companies to pay the same amount as their EU competitors to protect the climate. Under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), industrial facilities considered to be seriously threatened by carbon leakage are specially treated to support their competitiveness. In any event, only the facilities included in the ETS would benefit from free allowances and only an amount corresponding to their relatively low combustion emissions resulting from heat production up to a repository. As the international community strives to undertake a global effort to control greenhouse gas emissions, countries are moving forward more and more unilaterally and in small groups. The result will be an increased asymmetry in climate change measures and a greater diversity of CO2 costs worldwide. Update of 7 May 2019: the body has been revised to show that the overall leakage rate of 75% for Danish agriculture, calculated in the Danish study, had general equilibrium effects. If we take into account only the direct effects that compare changes in agricultural emissions in and out of Denmark, the leakage rate is calculated at 112% -h/t of LJ.
Overall coverage of emissions reductions. Leaks can only occur if production can move away from the coast in response to the introduction of national climate policy measures. Leaks can be avoided or reduced if the main competing countries have also set binding emission limits. Therefore, the priority of EU policy should be to strengthen the obligation to strictly implement the commitments made to limit and reduce emissions under the Paris Agreement. Access to the EU market when entering into free trade agreements with third countries should be used for this purpose. Another possible solution for developing countries to deal with the threat of stroke would be the introduction of a carbon tax on their exports to countries with a BCA regime. Developing countries could not only avoid stroke, but also increase the revenue that could be spent on climate change mitigation at home. The introduction of a price for CO2 emissions is a way to encourage the phasing out of polluting technologies and to encourage the move to low-carbon alternatives12.